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Comprehensive Land Use Plan Of Baguio City Pdf Free


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The comprehensive plan, also known as a general plan, master plan or land-use plan, is a document designed to guide the future actions of a community. It presents a vision for the future, with long-range goals and objectives for all activities that affect the local government. This includes guidance on how to make decisions on public and private land development proposals, the expenditure of public funds, availability of tax policy (tax incentives), cooperative efforts and issues of pressing concern, such as farmland preservation or the rehabilitation of older neighborhoods areas. Most plans are written to provide direction for future activities over a 10- to 20-year period after plan adoption. However, plans should receive a considered review and possible update every five years.


Poor urban development planning can lead to many negative socio-economic impacts (e.g., poor quality of life) (Bloom et al. 2008), while urbanization itself is arguably the most drastic form of land transformation that results in irreversible landscape changes. The three components of the triple bottom line of sustainability (TBLS), namely environmental, social, and economic, represent a nested hierarchy as societies cannot thrive without a functioning life-support system; and without functioning social structures and institutions, economies cannot flourish (Fischer et al. 2007; Mori and Christodoulou 2012). Based on these structural relationships, a sustainable city or community must achieve a balance among environmental protection, social well-being and economic development (PCSD 1997; Wu 2010). Proper landscape and urban planning might help in the attainment of sustainable urbanization.


Urban sustainability assessment plays an important role in proper landscape and urban planning toward sustainable urbanization. It evaluates the rate, direction and potential impact of urbanization on ecosystem conditions, ecological capacity and the socio-economic well-being of people. It can provide vital information to policy makers and planners in the pursuit of sustainable urbanization. The effects of sustainability policies and development plans on the urban environment can be revealed through indicators (Munier 2005). Therefore, indicators are important in the monitoring and evaluation process of the progress, direction and impacts of sustainability goals (Newman and Jennings 2008).


During the period of Spanish rule in 1846, the Spaniards established a comandancia in the nearby town of La Trinidad, and organized Benguet into 31 rancherías, one of which was Kafagway, a wide grassy area where the present Burnham Park is situated. Kafagway was then a minor rancheria consisting of only about 20 houses. Most of the lands in Kafagway were owned by Mateo Cariño, who served as its chieftain.[16] The Spanish presidencia, which was located at Bag-iw at the vicinity of Guisad Valley was later moved to Cariño's house where the current city hall stands. Bag-iw, a local term for "moss" once abundant in the area was spelled by the Spaniards as Baguio, which served as the name of the rancheria.[10][17]


Burnham, one of the earliest successful modern city planners, designed the mountain retreat following the tenets of the City Beautiful movement. In 1904, the rest of the city was planned out by Burnham. On September 1, 1909, Baguio was declared as a chartered city and nicknamed the "Summer Capital of the Philippines".[22]


Baguio is located some 1,400 meters (4,600 feet) above sea level, nestled within the Cordillera Central mountain range in northern Luzon. The city is enclosed by the province of Benguet.[22] It covers a small area of 57.5 square kilometres (22.2 sq mi). Most of the developed part of the city is built on uneven, hilly terrain of the northern section. When Daniel Burnham drew plans for the city, he made the City Hall a reference point where the city limits extend 8.2 kilometres (5.1 mi) from east to west and 7.2 kilometres (4.5 mi) from north to south.[22]


Under the Köppen climate classification, Baguio features a tropical monsoon climate (Köppen climate classification: Am). The city is known for its mild climate owing to its high elevation. The temperature in the city is usually about 7 to 8 C (12.6 to 14.4 F) cooler than the temperature in the lowland area.[22][50] Average temperature ranges from 15 to 23 C (59 to 73 F) with the lowest temperatures between November and February. The lowest recorded temperature was 6.3 C (43.3 F) on January 18, 1961, and in contrast, the all-time high of 30.4 C (86.7 F) was recorded on March 15, 1988,[51] during the 1988 El Niño season.[52] The temperature seldom exceeds 26 C (78.8 F) even during the warmest part of the year.


Like many other cities with a subtropical highland climate, Baguio receives noticeably less precipitation during its dry season. However, the city has an extraordinary amount of precipitation during the rainy season from June to October.[22] The city averages over 3,914 mm (154 in) of rainfall annually, the highest in the country.[53]


Another problem that plagues the city is its garbage and waste disposal. The city has been dumping its garbage in a landfill in Urdaneta City, but rising costs are putting a strain on the city's budget.[58] In early 2018, the city government started using its garbage transfer station in the city outskirts near Marcos Highway, drawing protests from residents of the nearby town of Tuba, who cited the facility poses health hazards to their communities.[59] As of 2019, the Philippine National Oil Company (PNOC) has offered to test a waste-to-energy technology as a possible solution to its garbage woes.[60] The city's waste water treatment plant is also eyed for an expansion as it not been able to fully cater to the city's needs. Those which the plant have not been able to cater to were dumped in the Balili River, leading to its high coliform levels, even higher than that of Manila Bay's.[61]


Baguio is also a planned city. American Architect and Urban Planner Daniel Burnham was commissioned to design the new capital. His design for the city was based on the City Beautiful movement,[62] which features broad streets and avenues radiating out from rectangles.


The original inhabitants of Baguio are the Ibaloi people (natively pronounced as "Ivadoi"). When the Americans established the city in the early 1900s, early settlers in the city include members of other Igorot tribes (Igudut in Ibaloi), the lowlander Ilocanos (Iduko), Americans (Merikano), and mestizos. A significant number of Chinese and Japanese laborers were also hired to build Kennon Road, many of whom later settled in the city.[14]


Another key source of income for Baguio is its position as the economic hub of the Cordillera Administrative Region.[91] The economy of the city has benefited from the vibrant mining industry in several towns of Benguet.[92] Many agricultural goods produced in Benguet pass through Baguio for processing, sale or further distribution to the lowlands.[93]


A Philippine Economic Zone Authority (PEZA)-accredited business and industrial park called the Baguio City Economic Zone (BCEZ) is located in the southern part of the city between Camp John Hay Country Club and Philippine Military Academy in Barangay Loakan. Firms located in the BCEZ mostly produce and export knitted clothing, transistors, small components for vehicles, electronics and computer parts. Notable firms include Texas Instruments Philippines, which is the second largest exporter in the country.[96] Other companies headquartered within the economic zone include Baguio Ayalaland Technohub,[97] Moog Philippines, Inc.,[98] Linde Philippines, Inc., LTX Philippines Corporation, Texas Instruments Philippines, and Sitel Philippines, Baguio.[99]


Tourism is one of Baguio's main industries due to its cool climate and history. The city is one of the country's top tourist destinations. During the year end holidays some people from the lowlands prefer spending their vacation in Baguio, to experience cold temperatures they rarely have in their home provinces. Also, during summer, especially during Holy Week, tourists from all over the country flock to the city. During this time, the total number of people in the city doubles.[109] To accommodate all these people there are more than 80 hotels and inns available, as well as numerous transient houses set up by the locals.[110] Local festivities such as the Panagbenga Festival also attracts both local and foreign tourists.[111]


In an effort to address traffic congestion and the lack of car parking at tourist spots in the city, Baguio operates a free bus shuttle service called the Hop On, Hop Off (HoHo) Tourist Bus. Through a park and ride scheme, the service encourages tourists with private vehicles to park their vehicles at the Baguio Convention Center (BCC) for a fee and ride the bus to various tourists sites free of charge.[137] Relaunched on July 15, 2022, the HoHo bus has scheduled departure and arrival times, operating a looped route between the BCC, the Baguio Botanical Garden, the Mansion House, Mines View Park, Wright Park, and Governor Pack Road. The bus service has an estimated waiting interval of 30 minutes and is operational from 8:30 AM to 6:20 PM daily.[138]


The city is also the only local government unit to own and operate its own renewable energy plant. Originally constructed in the 1920s, the Asin Mini Hydropower Plants 1, 2 and 3 located in Tuba, Benguet came under the city's possession after the lapse of the 25-year lease agreement with the Aboitiz-owned Hydroelectric Development Corporation (HEDCOR). The plant acted as both a power source and another income-generating asset of the city as BENECO was also its main client. The power plant however was forced to cease operation on 2015 when the Energy Regulatory Commission issued a cease-and-desist order to the city due to the lack of a certificate of compliance from the city. The city currently has plans to rehabilitate the power plants so that they could resume operations once again.[147][148] 153554b96e






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